How exciting would it be to uncover the hidden truths of our world? Scientists spend each and every day hunting knowledge to make more sense of our planet, and why Earth is the way she is. Biologists, in particular, work hard to understand the Animal Kingdom, but a recent discovery has some people on edge: Crows may not be as innocent as we thought.
Over time, biologists and animal experts have discovered mankind’s connection with other species. They created a map of then Animal Kingdom, outlining animals’ relations. Primates are the closest in anatomy and capability to human beings, but one particular species of crow may be catching up.
The Dodo / SHAWN BERGMAN
Many species of birds, such as cockatiels and parrots, have proven their intelligence through impressive memories, speaking capabilities, and tune chirping. New Caledonian Crows, however, have surprised experts in a completely different way.
Today, crows are often seen as a negative, even frightening symbol — think Halloween. Centuries of research, however, gave experts a more definitive understanding of the bird, and a recent experiment all but confirmed some interesting theories.
Over the 20th century, experts spent time studying the New Caledonian Crow, a medium-sized crow subspecies found in New Caledonia islands in the Pacific, miles off the coast of Australia. Something about these birds really stood out.
Experts realized that, very curiously, Caledonian Crows were learning to create objects that helped them through day-to-day life. Observations noted, however, that the tools weren’t all that impressive.
For the most part, the New Caledonian Crows were making tools to hook larvae. They were rudimentary and simple: sticks and leaves, mostly. Over time, experts saw the tools become more complicated.
Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images
The birds started shaping these tools to their own newly imagined designs, and somehow, word of these new machinations started spreading to other crows. New designs were popping up and spreading throughout the island. In 2018, experts wanted to better understand this.
So, Sarah Jelbert, Ph.D., a postdoctoral psychology researcher at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, worked with a team to devise a way to test the Caladonian Crow’s intelligence. Their experiment would be simple.
Dr. Sarah Jelbert
Eight Caladonian Crows of varying ages were tested. Rather than provide the birds with the leaves from their natural habitats, the researchers challenged the crows with something new. Using foreign materials, the birds would need to craft off-the-cuff tools.
The crows were placed within an enclosing that held scraps of paper, which the researchers had trained the birds to place into a make-shift vending machine that was also in the enclosing. Do this, and they would be rewarded with food.
The University of Auckland
Once the birds were trained, they were put to the test. Researchers placed a large, uncut piece of paper onto the floor of the enclosure. It was up to the crows to cut the paper so that they could operate the vending machine.
University of Auckland
The researchers learned a great deal from this test. Each of the eight crows cut the paper into a different shape or size, but the ones who trimmed the paper closest to the required size did so in a very special way.
The highest scoring crows — which, again, ripped the paper into appropriately sized pieces for the vending machine — took great care in the way they shaped the paper, using their wings and surroundings to their advantage. One crow, in particular, stood out.
This crow, Emma, flew up to the gated portion of the enclosure, tucked the paper in between the wood and the gate, and tore away at the paper until it was perfect. Experts were stunned.
University of Auckland
What made this tool crafting even more excepetional was that all of these test birds had never seen another crow tear the paper before. Without a guiding example, the crows figured out their own methods for re-sizing paper. Experts noticed a few other details.
Photo by David Benito/Getty Images
For the most part, the adult crows cut their paper more accurately than the younger crows, most likely suggesting that, the longer a bird lived, the more he or she actually absorbed the world around them and made analytical decisions.
University of Auckland
In short, what all this means is that these birds have learned a skill that no other bird or other animal has. Caledonian Crows possess an intelligence they nourished over generations and passed down from one to another. Experts say it’s more impressive than you might think.
University of Auckland
Another study, which saw crows using a small stick to retrieve a larger stick that could then activate the vending machine, proved experts’ hunches: that crows were quite possibly better at tool-making than apes (so should we be fearful of gorilla crows)?
But don’t worry about crowds outclassing apes any time soon. Whether you’re a child or a senior citizen, everyone has a favorite animal to see at the zoo. While elephants, hippos, and lions are all classics, there’s something awe-inspiring about gorillas — and experts just recently learned more about why that may be.
Photo by Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis via Getty Images
Part of gorillas’ appeal is their humanity. While we can project personalities and emotions on other animals, apes, like gorillas and chimpanzees, are genetically similar to human beings. There are plenty of behavioral connections, too.
Gorillas live in social groups known as troops and communicate through a variety of vocalizations and gestures. They’re also capable of using tools and, in captivity, have even learned sign language and adopted pets.
The Gorilla Foundation
Based on that reality, scientists want to learn as much as they can about the apes. There’s a limit to what you can learn in captivity, though. Studying gorillas in the wild is far superior.
Studying gorillas in their natural habitat, however, isn’t the easiest feat. On a purely logistical basis, the apes only live in a few scattered areas of Africa; getting there, let alone finding them, can be quite a challenge.
Amy Hanes / Sanaga-Yong Chimpanzee Rescue
Most animals are also skeptical of outsiders, especially those of the human variety, and gorillas are no exception. If a scientist simply walked up to a troop of apes in the wild, things would get pretty ugly.
Even a camera isn’t a perfect solution; gorillas would realize that the technology doesn’t belong in their native habitat and act accordingly. Thankfully for the scientific community, those who study the apes are nothing if not creative.
So, as documented in the PBS series Nature: Spy in the Wild 2, filmmakers and scientists created a hidden camera that could infiltrate an ape troop. This piece of technology, however, did more than simply record.
In order to fool these intelligent apes, the camera was placed inside of an animatronic gorilla! Its infiltration abilities were put to the test soon after the team arrived in Uganda.
Once on the ground in Africa, the team headed into a sanctuary where they knew gorillas could be found. They set up the camera and, before long, its powers of disguise were put to the test.
African Budget Safaris
As you might assume, a new gorilla appearing in the mountains is going to attract some attention. Unsurprisingly, the troop’s dominant male noticed the visitor and came over to check it out.
Upon seeing that there was a strange new ape present, the silverback needed to determine if he was a threat to the troop. In that moment, the spy gorilla would be put to the ultimate test…
“We wanted to make sure that we were not being threatening, so we averted the gaze of our spy gorilla,” Spy in the Wild 2 producer Matt Gordon explained. The team adjusted the robot’s eyes, hoping for the best.
The dominant male accepted the gesture. The spy gorilla was in! Before long, the rest of the troop crowded around the camera, vying to check out their strange, new visitor.
Once it was accepted by the group, the spy gorilla got to work filming. After beating its chest, for example, it was able to observe some young apes during playtime!
That wasn’t the only unique behavior the camera captured, though. One night during mealtime, the spy gorilla recorded something that scientists hadn’t seen before. They couldn’t believe their eyes…or ears.
While eating, the gorillas hummed! While there had been stories of the apes “singing” before, there was no video evidence to confirm the behavior. There were quite a few quirks within the performance.
Based on the spy gorilla’s surveillance, it seems that older, male gorillas sing more than anyone else. They also prefer to produce a “chorus of appreciation” while eating a vegetarian meal, rather than insects.
That wasn’t the only sound the camera caught, however. After eating their meal, the gorillas were also pretty gassy; before long, loud farts replaced the singing as the primary soundtrack among the troop! Still, experts had a lot to learn about gorillas.
San Diego Zoo/ Twitter
One particular ape showed experts how little they knew of apes. On May 27, 1999, a male silverback gorilla was born at the Gladys Porter Zoo in Brownsville, Texas. A naming contest was held, and, inspired by a song by Rita Marley, the winner dubbed the newborn ape “Harambe.”
Harambe would go on to spend the next 15 years in Brownsville until zookeepers felt it was time to introduce him to a new social group. And so, on September 18, 2014, Harambe was transferred to the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden.
The gorilla quickly took to his new environment, and for two years, he lived unbothered in the zoo’s Gorilla World habitat. Then, on May 28, 2016, the unthinkable happened.
While visiting the gorilla enclosure, a three-year-old boy decided he wanted a closer look at the great apes. But after scaling the outer fence, the child lost his footing and fell fifteen feet into a shallow moat below.
Chaos broke out as the crowd scrambled to save the child, with zookeepers quickly working to corral the three gorillas in the habitat. Two of the apes were herded into their cages, but the third, the ever-curious Harambe, decided to investigate.
For the next ten minutes, onlookers watched in horror as the 400-pound silverback dragged the boy through the water. Harambe became increasingly agitated as the cries of the frenzied crowd grew louder, and with each passing moment, the boy’s fate only seemed to grow more uncertain.
Fearing for the child’s safety, the zoo had no choice but to kill the gorilla, firing a single shot to put the great ape down. But although the boy came away from the incident without major injury, the killing of Harambe would soon make national headlines.
Following the release of a video of the incident, animal-rights activists came out in full force to condemn the zoos decision to kill Harambe. Criticism was also directed at the boy’s parents, whose negligence they claimed was the direct cause of the ape’s death.
The Denver Post
But the zoo was quick to defend the actions of its keepers, and many conservationists came out in support of the decision. Even renown primatologists Jane Goodall agreed that, given the circumstances, putting Harambe down was the only option.
The Morning Journal
“It was awful for the child, the parents, Harambe, the zoo, the keepers and the public,” wrote Goodall. “But when people come into contact with wild animals, life and death decisions sometimes have to be made.” But this was not the end of the great ape’s story.
Since his death, Harambe has become somewhat of a folk hero in the realm of popular culture. Dozens of candlelight vigils have been held in honor of the fallen ape, and online, Harambe has become a staple of internet meme culture. As his legacy took the spotlight, people began questioning the facts.
See, Harambe’s death remains controversial, particularly due to a widely circulated claim that the boy was actually in no real danger at all. Instead of seeking to harm the child, some argue that Harambe was actually trying to protect him.
This belief gained traction over the years, though just recently, former zookeeper Amanda O’Donoughue offered a different perspective on Harambe’s killing. And for those that stand in staunch opposition of the zoo’s actions, her words just might change your mind.
Amanda O’Donoughue / Facebook
“I have watched this video over again, and with Harambe’s posturing, and tight lips, it’s pretty much the stuff of any keeper’s nightmares,” O’Donoughue explained in a post on Facebook. “Gorillas are kind, curious, and sometimes silly, but they are also very large, very strong animals.”
And because of this immense strength, the child was in an incredible amount of danger regardless of Harambe’s desire to protect him. Though according to O’Donoughue, the boy’s safety was likely the last thing on the ape’s mind.
“I keep hearing that the Gorilla was trying to protect the boy. I do not find this to be true,” wrote O’Donoughue. “Harambe the Gorilla reaches for the boy’s hands and arms, but only to position the child better for his own displaying purposes.”
O’Donoughue continued: “Males do very elaborate displays when highly agitated, slamming and dragging things about… to make as much noise as possible. Not in an effort to hurt anyone or anything (usually) but just to intimidate. It was clear to me that he was reacting to the screams coming from the gathering crowd.”
But even so, many questioned the need for lethal force, especially when the zoo had the ability to sedate Harambe from a distance. However, O’Donoughue explained that doing so could’ve actually made the situation even more deadly.
According to O’Donoughue, the tranquilizer would’ve taken too long to immobilize Harambe and stood the chance of aggravating him even more. And even if he had been sedated, Harambe likely would’ve drowned in the moat and very easily could’ve crushed the boy after falling unconscious.
For now, the debate over Harambe’s death rages on, but even still, O’Donoughue believes that this kind of open discourse will allow us to prevent future killings of innocent animals.
“As educators and conservators of endangered species,” O’Donoughue said, “all we can do is shine a light on the beauty and majesty of these animals in hopes to spark a love and a need to keep them from vanishing from our planet.”
Unfortunately, freak accidents still happen, and it’s usually an animal that winds up paying the price. Even in a place like England’s Dudley Zoo, decades worth of training and experience couldn’t prevent a heartbreaking tragedy from befalling one of its residents.
On any given day at the Dudley Zoo, visitors can walk along scenic wooded paths while lemurs hop freely all around them; or, they can check out the walrus enclosure and get up close and personal with the tusked mammals. But in 2018, there was one particular animal who drew much of the guests’ attention.
It was an eight-year-old snow leopard named Margaash. The zoo was fortunate to have such a majestic and rare animal living there, and spectators seemed to always spend the most time admiring him.
Usually, it was kids that spent a long time staring into the snow leopard enclosure. And while the Dudley Zoo had a few leopards roaming the habitat, it was always Margaash that enjoyed the most attention.
While Margaash’s snow leopard buddies frequently laid low during most of the day, you better believe Margaash was ready to put on a show at a moment’s notice. His playful demeanor made him one of the zoo workers’ favorite animals.
Although Margaash had a friendly personality, he was a wild animal; workers always had to be on their guards when he was near. Employees had specific guidelines on handling every animal, but one evening, during a closing walkthrough, everything fell apart.
One employee frantically motioned for the others to gather around the snow leopard enclosure. Someone left the door wide open, and Margaash was missing. Workers looked around in a panic, unsure of where or when the snow leopard would appear.
They needed to find the animal quickly. Dudley Castle was a popular place, and not an ideal spot for a leopard to be on the prowl. It would quickly turn into a nightmare scenario if Margaash put his hunting skills to the test there.
Employees quickly contacted zoo security, who arrived stocked with tranquilizer guns and floodlights. No one was going anywhere until Margaash was located — and that was if he didn’t find them first!
After hours of careful searching, one of the workers miraculously spotted Margaash on the edge of the woodline, about to bound off the premises and into the wooded land separating the zoo from unprotected people. Workers had to make a move.
The zoo was well-stocked with tranquilizer darts for situations exactly like this one. It was too dangerous to trap the animal while it was worked up and nervous. They needed to sedate Margaash for everyone’s safety.
But strangely, it was the zoo’s vet who advised against the tranquilizer and suggested using an actual bullet instead. Night was quickly falling, and they couldn’t risk Margaash escaping into the woodlands. Zoo security heeded that advice. A single shot rang out.
Margaash’s death infuriated animal rights groups. Was there really no other option? Plenty of people were already on the fence about the ethical issues of keeping animals locked in cages, but Margaash’s death gave them a reason to call for change.
See, not only was Margaash an innocent animal who simply wandered out of his enclosure due to a zoo worker’s error, but researchers estimate only about 5,000 snow leopards even exist in the wild. With Margaash’s death, there was one less.
Julie Woodyer, the campaign director for a zoo inspection group called Zoocheck, was sickened by what happened. Snow leopards were shy animals, and since it was nighttime when Margaash escaped, streets wouldn’t have been flooded with people. She saw no reason why they used bullets.
However, Dudley Zoo director Derek Grove defended the zoo’s decision to kill the animal. Although incredibly saddened by the loss, he had the safety of innocent people in mind, and if Margaash injured anyone, he would’ve felt personally responsible.
Margaash will always remain a Dudley Zoo favorite, but nothing can bring the beautiful cat back. Even though zoo officials claim killing Margaash was their only recourse, you hope the zoo enacts stricter policies so a tragedy like this one never happens again.
Of course, it’s not often that a wild or escaped animal wanders into our personal space; they typically want to avoid us at all costs. But, on the rare occasion that they do, it can lead to some serious trouble.
Bears, for example, aren’t exactly the kind of animal you’d consider helpless. Still, they’re curious, and that can sometimes leave them between a rock and a hard place. This was no more evident than the case of one bear in Alligator Point on St. James Island in Florida…
The 375-pound black bear had been sniffing around the neighborhood when he wandered into a home. Wildlife conservation officers were called to sedate him and safely relocate him to the wild, but moments after he was shot with a tranquilizer, things started to go wrong.
It may sound harsh to shoot an animal, even by strictly non-lethal means, but the wildlife officers had no choice. As much as the bear wanted nothing more than to mind his own business, he would have encountered a human soon enough.
Even though using a tranquilizer was the humane option to ensure the bear and area residents stayed safe, there were no guarantees the process would go the way they planned it…
Of course, that plan quickly backfired. Instead of the dart sedating him, it immediately sent the bear into a panic. The wildlife officers readied themselves for the worst, but they didn’t realize just how bad things were about to get.
The large bear, who must have been terrified by the officers chasing him, made a beeline toward the nearby water—and he began swimming out as far as he could. Unfortunately, that was when the sedative started to kick in.
The drowsy bear clearly couldn’t keep himself afloat—and he began to drown! Adam Warwick, a biologist with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, knew that he had to act quickly.
Without hesitating, the fearless and determined Adam dove into the water and swam toward the huge bear. Most people couldn’t imagine doing something quite so brave, but to him, it made perfect sense… at least in the moment.
“It was a spur of the moment decision. I had a lot of adrenaline pumping when I saw the bear in the water,” Adam later said of the experience. Thank goodness for that adrenaline, otherwise he would have known how dangerous it truly was. What if the bear attacked him?
Adam didn’t have time to think twice: he grabbed the enormous bear with both hands and wrapped his arms around his neck. Then he started to kick toward shallow water where the other wildlife officers were waiting…
The bear wasn’t entirely asleep, and he was understandably distressed. He frantically tried to climb on top of Adam in an effort to stay afloat, but he was losing the ability to move his legs.
Despite his stressful—and incredibly risky—mission, Adam stayed as calm as he could as he approached more shallow water. He grabbed the bear by the scruff of his neck and carefully led him toward the rescue boat.
Thankfully, Adam was able to pull the powerful predator roughly 25 yards toward dry land. Moving the bear might’ve seemed (relatively) easy in the water, but it was a different story on the shore!
The unusual pair finally made it to the rest of the rescue team, in one piece. Though the bear was sedated, he could have lunged at Adam or swiped at him with his claws at any moment…
Incredibly, Adam suffered only one scratch during the entire ordeal. Other than that, he was perfectly fine! Who would have known that he’d come out of this risky mission relatively unscathed?
Adam’s colleagues stepped in to help the exhausted man and beast collect their bearings. It was going to take a lot of people—and a lot of bravery along the way, much like anyone in this type of situation…
The team drove a large tractor toward the water’s edge to transport the groggy bear back to his home in Osceola National Forest. There was no way they would’ve been able to carry a 375-pound animal without a little help!
Thankfully, the bear didn’t suffer any injuries after his wild jaunt in the water. It was safe to say that he probably wouldn’t go anywhere near water for a while following this experience.
Most importantly, this massive bear was safe and back in a habitat that suited him best. Hopefully by now he’s learned to avoid wandering into residential neighborhoods!